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This page provides a guide to different topics covering the science of snow crystal formation.
First, a couple references:
 "Physical Dynamics of Ice Crystal Growth," by Kenneth G. Libbrecht, Annual Reviews of Materials Research, 2017. 47:271–95.

This is a detailed review paper describing much of what is currently known about how ice crystals grow. It's a dense read, with much information relegated to the references.
 "The Snowflake: Winter's Frozen Artistry," by Kenneth Libbrecht and Rachel Wing, 2015, Voyageur Press.

This is a popular-science book, describing snowflake science in a more readable format, but with much less scientific detail.


I am working on a new book about the science of snow crystals that aims to be something of a merger of the two references above. The focus will be on serious science, including the material in the above review paper, but unpacked enough to make it more readable. And with more pictures....

This is a work in progress, but I will be posting new chapters as they become available. Previously posted chapters may change from time to time as well, because I am constantly adding new material and finding new ways to present the subject. (Comments are welcome also.)

Last updated 8 July 2019.

Snow Crystals

1. Snow Crystal Science

2. Ice Crystal Structure

3. Attachment Kinetics

4. Diffusion Limited Growth

5. Computational Snow Crystals

6. Laboratory Snow Crystals

7. Simple Ice Prisms

8. Electric Ice Needles

9. Plate-on-Pedestal Snow Crystals

10. A Field Guide to Snowflakes

11. Snowflake Photography

12. Ice from Liquid Water

Bibliography